#### 1. PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, UNITS & MEASUREMENTS

**Content**

- Physical quantities
- SI units
- Prefixes
- Scalars and vectors
- Measurement of length and time

**Learning Outcomes **

Candidates should be able to:

- show understanding that all physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude and a unit
- recall the following base quantities and their units: mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A), temperature (K), amount of substance (mol)
- use the following prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal sub-multiples and multiples of the SI units: nano (n), micro (µ), milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M), giga (G)
- show an understanding of the orders of magnitude of the sizes of common objects ranging from a typical atom to the Earth
- state what is meant by scalar and vector quantities and give common examples of each
- add two vectors to determine a resultant by a graphical method
- describe how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy by means of tapes, rules, micrometers and calipers, using a vernier scale as necessary
- describe how to measure a short interval of time including the period of a simple pendulum with appropriate accuracy using stopwatches or appropriate instruments

#### 2. KINEMATICS

**Content**

- Speed, velocity and acceleration
- Graphical analysis of motion
- Free-fall
- Effect of air resistance

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- state what is meant by speed and velocity
- calculate average speed using distance travelled / time taken
- state what is meant by uniform acceleration and calculate the value of an acceleration using change in velocity / time taken
- interpret given examples of non-uniform acceleration
- plot and interpret a displacement-time graph and a velocity-time graph
- deduce from the shape of a displacement-time graph when a body is:
- (i) at rest
- (ii) moving with uniform velocity
- (iii) moving with non-uniform velocity
- deduce from the shape of a velocity-time graph when a body is:
- (i) at rest
- (ii) moving with uniform velocity
- (iii) moving with uniform acceleration
- (iv) moving with non-uniform acceleration
- calculate the area under a velocity-time graph to determine the displacement travelled for motion with uniform velocity or uniform acceleration
- state that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the Earth is constant and is approximately 10 m/s
^{2} - describe the motion of bodies with constant weight falling with or without air resistance, including reference to terminal velocity

#### 3. DYNAMICS

**Content**

- Balanced and unbalanced forces
- Free-body diagram
- Friction

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- apply Newton's Laws to:
- (i) describe the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on a body
- (ii) describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body
- (iii) identify action-reaction pairs acting on two interacting bodies

(stating of Newton's Laws is not required) - identify forces acting on an object and draw free-body diagram(s) representing the forces acting on the object (for cases involving forces acting in at most 2 dimensions)
- solve problems for a static point mass under the action of 3 forces for 2-dimensional cases (a graphical method would suffice)
- recall and apply the relationship resultant force = mass × acceleration to new situations or to solve related problems
- explain the effects of friction on the motion of a body

#### 4. MASS, WEIGHT & DENSITY

**Content**

- Mass and weight
- Gravitational field and field strength
- Density

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- state that mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body
- state that mass of a body resists a change in the state of rest or motion of the body (inertia)
- state that a gravitational field is a region in which a mass experiences a force due to gravitational attraction
- define gravitational field strength, g, as gravitational force per unit mass
- recall and apply the relationship weight = mass × gravitational field strength to new situations or to solve related problems
- distinguish between mass and weight
- recall and apply the relationship density = mass / volume to new situations or to solve related problems

#### 5. TURNING EFFECT OF FORCES

**Content**

- Moments
- Centre of gravity
- Stability

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- describe the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and relate this to everyday examples
- recall and apply the relationship moment of a force (or torque) = force × perpendicular distance from the pivot to new situations or to solve related problems
- state the principle of moments for a body in equilibrium
- apply the principle of moments to new situations or to solve related problems
- show understanding that the weight of a body may be taken as acting at a single point known as its centre of gravity
- describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of gravity on the stability of objects

#### 6. PRESSURE

**Content**

- Pressure
- Pressure differences
- Pressure measurement

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- define the term pressure in terms of force and area
- recall and apply the relationship pressure = force /area to new situations or to solve related problems
- describe and explain the transmission of pressure in hydraulic systems with particular reference to the hydraulic press
- recall and apply the relationship pressure due to a liquid column = height of column × density of the liquid × gravitational field strength to new situations or to solve related problems
- describe how the height of a liquid column may be used to measure the atmospheric pressure
- describe the use of a manometer in the measurement of pressure difference

#### 7. ENERGY, WORK & POWER

Content

- Energy conversion and conservation
- Work
- Power

Candidates should be able to:

- show understanding that kinetic energy, potential energy (chemical, gravitational, elastic), light energy, thermal energy, electrical energy and nuclear energy are examples of different forms of energy
- state the principle of the conservation of energy and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- calculate the efficiency of an energy conversion using the formula efficiency = energy converted to useful output/total energy input
- state that kinetic energy E
_{k}= ½ mv^{2}and gravitational potential energy E_{p}= mgh (for potential energy changes near the Earth’s surface) - apply the relationships for kinetic energy and potential energy to new situations or to solve related problems
- recall and apply the relationship work done = force × distance moved in the direction of the force to new situations or to solve related problems
- recall and apply the relationship power = work done /time taken to new situations or to solve related problems

#### 8. KINETIC MODEL OF MATTER

**Content**

- States of matter
- Brownian motion
- Kinetic model

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- compare the properties of solids, liquids and gases
- describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases, relating their properties to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules
- infer from a Brownian motion experiment the evidence for the movement of molecules
- describe the relationship between the motion of molecules and temperature
- explain the pressure of a gas in terms of the motion of its molecules
- recall and explain the following relationships using the kinetic model (stating of the corresponding gas laws is not required):
- (i) a change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume is caused by a change in temperature of the gas
- (ii) a change in volume occupied by a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is caused by a change in temperature of the gas
- (iii) a change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is caused by a change in volume of the gas
- use the relationships in (f) in related situations and to solve problems (a qualitative treatment would suffice)

#### 9. TRANSFER OF THERMAL ENERGY

Content

- Conduction
- Convection
- Radiation

Candidates should be able to:

- show understanding that thermal energy is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature
- describe, in molecular terms, how energy transfer occurs in solids
- describe, in terms of density changes, convection in fluids
- explain that energy transfer of a body by radiation does not require a material medium and that the rate of energy transfer is affected by:
- (i) colour and texture of the surface
- (ii) surface temperature
- (iii) surface area
- apply the concept of thermal energy transfer to everyday applications

#### 10. TEMPERATURE

**Content**

- Principles of thermometry

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- explain how a physical property which varies with temperature, such as volume of liquid column, resistance of metal wire and electromotive force (e.m.f.) produced by junctions formed with wires of two different metals, may be used to define temperature scales
- describe the process of calibration of a liquid-in-glass thermometer, including the need for fixed points such as the ice point and steam point

#### 11. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

**Content**

- Internal energy
- Specific heat capacity
- Melting, boiling and evaporation
- Specific latent heat

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- describe a rise in temperature of a body in terms of an increase in its internal energy (random thermal energy)
- define the terms heat capacity and specific heat capacity
- recall and apply the relationship thermal energy = mass × specific heat capacity × change in temperature to new situations or to solve related problems
- describe melting/solidification and boiling/condensation as processes of energy transfer without a change in temperature
- explain the difference between boiling and evaporation
- define the terms latent heat and specific latent heat
- recall and apply the relationship thermal energy = mass × specific latent heat to new situations or to solve related problems
- explain latent heat in terms of molecular behaviour
- sketch and interpret a cooling curve

#### 12. GENERAL WAVE PROPERTIES

**Content**

- Describing wave motion
- Wave terms
- Longitudinal and transverse waves

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibrations in ropes and springs and by waves in a ripple tank
- show understanding that waves transfer energy without transferring matter
- define speed, frequency, wavelength, period and amplitude
- state what is meant by the term wavefront
- recall and apply the relationship velocity = frequency × wavelength to new situations or to solve related problems
- compare transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples of each

#### 13. LIGHT

Content

- Reflection of light
- Refraction of light
- Thin lenses

Candidates should be able to:

- recall and use the terms for reflection, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of reflection
- state that, for reflection, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection and use this principle in constructions, measurements and calculations
- recall and use the terms for refraction, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction
- recall and apply the relationship sin i / sin r = constant to new situations or to solve related problems
- define refractive index of a medium in terms of the ratio of speed of light in vacuum and in the medium
- explain the terms critical angle and total internal reflection
- identify the main ideas in total internal reflection and apply them to the use of optical fibres in telecommunication and state the advantages of their use
- describe the action of a thin lens (both converging and diverging) on a beam of light
- define the term focal length for a converging lens
- draw ray diagrams to illustrate the formation of real and virtual images of an object by a thin converging lens

#### 14. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Content

- Properties of electromagnetic waves
- Applications of electromagnetic waves
- Effects of electromagnetic waves on cells and tissue

Candidates should be able to:

- state that all electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that travel with the same speed in vacuum and state the magnitude of this speed
- describe the main components of the electromagnetic spectrum
- state examples of the use of the following components:
- (i) radio waves (e.g. radio and television communication)
- (ii) microwaves (e.g. microwave oven and satellite television)
- (iii) infra-red (e.g. infra-red remote controllers and intruder alarms)
- (iv) light (e.g. optical fibres for medical uses and telecommunications)
- (v) ultra-violet (e.g. sunbeds and sterilisation)
- (vi) X-rays (e.g. radiological and engineering applications)
- (vii) gamma rays (e.g. medical treatment)
- describe the effects of absorbing electromagnetic waves, e.g. heating, ionisation and damage to living cells and tissue

#### 15. SOUND

Content

- Sound waves
- Speed of sound
- Echo
- Ultrasound

Candidates should be able to:

- describe the production of sound by vibrating sources
- describe the longitudinal nature of sound waves in terms of the processes of compression and rarefaction
- explain that a medium is required in order to transmit sound waves and that the speed of sound differs in air, liquids and solids
- describe a direct method for the determination of the speed of sound in air and make the necessary calculation
- relate loudness of a sound wave to its amplitude and pitch to its frequency
- describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo, and how this may be used for measuring distances
- define ultrasound and describe one use of ultrasound, e.g. quality control and pre-natal scanning

#### 16. STATIC ELECTRICITY

**Content**

- Laws of electrostatics
- Principles of electrostatics
- Electric field
- Applications of electrostatics

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- state that there are positive and negative charges and that charge is measured in coulombs
- state that unlike charges attract and like charges repel
- describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force
- draw the electric field of an isolated point charge and recall that the direction of the field lines gives the direction of the force acting on a positive test charge
- draw the electric field pattern between two isolated point charges
- show understanding that electrostatic charging by rubbing involves a transfer of electrons
- describe experiments to show electrostatic charging by induction
- describe examples where electrostatic charging may be a potential hazard
- describe the use of electrostatic charging in a photocopier, and apply the use of electrostatic charging to new situations

#### 17. CURRENT OF ELECTRICITY

Content

- Conventional current and electron flow
- Electromotive force
- Potential difference
- Resistance

Candidates should be able to:

- state that current is a rate of flow of charge and that it is measured in amperes
- distinguish between conventional current and electron flow
- recall and apply the relationship charge = current × time to new situations or to solve related problems
- define electromotive force (e.m.f.) as the work done by a source in driving unit charge around a complete circuit
- calculate the total e.m.f. where several sources are arranged in series
- state that the e.m.f. of a source and the potential difference (p.d.) across a circuit component are measured in volts
- define the p.d. across a component in a circuit as the work done to drive unit charge through the component
- state the definition that resistance = p.d./ current
- apply the relationship R = V/ I to new situations or to solve related problems
- describe an experiment to determine the resistance of a metallic conductor using a voltmeter and an ammeter, and make the necessary calculations
- recall and apply the formulae for the effective resistance of a number of resistors in series and in parallel to new situations or to solve related problems
- recall and apply the relationship of the proportionality between resistance and the length and crosssectional area of a wire to new situations or to solve related problems
- state Ohm’s Law
- describe the effect of temperature increase on the resistance of a metallic conductor
- sketch and interpret the I /V characteristic graphs for a metallic conductor at constant temperature, for a filament lamp and for a semiconductor diode

#### 18. D.C. CIRCUITS

Content

- Current and potential difference in circuits
- Series and parallel circuits
- Potential divider circuit
- Thermistor and light-dependent resistor

Candidates should be able to:

- draw circuit diagrams with power sources (cell, battery, d.c. supply or a.c. supply), switches, lamps, resistors (fixed and variable), variable potential divider (potentiometer), fuses, ammeters and voltmeters, bells, light-dependent resistors, thermistors and light-emitting diodes
- state that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- state that the sum of the potential differences in a series circuit is equal to the potential difference across the whole circuit and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- state that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- state that the potential difference across the separate branches of a parallel circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- recall and apply the relevant relationships, including R = V/ I and those for current, potential differences and resistors in series and in parallel circuits, in calculations involving a whole circuit
- describe the action of a variable potential divider (potentiometer)
- describe the action of thermistors and light-dependent resistors and explain their use as input transducers in potential dividers
- solve simple circuit problems involving thermistors and light-dependent resistors

#### 19. PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY

Content

- Electric power and energy
- Dangers of electricity
- Safe use of electricity in the home

Candidates should be able to:

- describe the use of the heating effect of electricity in appliances such as electric kettles, ovens and heaters
- recall and apply the relationships P = VI and E = VI t to new situations or to solve related problems
- calculate the cost of using electrical appliances where the energy unit is the kW h
- compare the use of non-renewable and renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric generation to generate electricity in terms of energy conversion efficiency, cost per kW h produced and environmental impact
- state the hazards of using electricity in the following situations:
- (i) damaged insulation
- (ii) overheating of cables
- (iii) damp conditions
- explain the use of fuses and circuit breakers in electrical circuits and of fuse ratings
- explain the need for earthing metal cases and for double insulation
- state the meaning of the terms live, neutral and earth
- (i) describe the wiring in a mains plug (j) explain why switches, fuses, and circuit breakers are wired into the live conductor

#### 20. MAGNETISM

**Content**

- Laws of magnetism
- Magnetic properties of matter
- Magnetic field

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- state the properties of magnets
- describe induced magnetism
- describe electrical methods of magnetisation and demagnetisation
- draw the magnetic field pattern around a bar magnet and between the poles of two bar magnets
- describe the plotting of magnetic field lines with a compass
- distinguish between the properties and uses of temporary magnets (e.g. iron) and permanent magnets (e.g. steel)