#### G1. ANGLES, TRIANGLES & POLYGONS

- right, acute, obtuse and reflex angles
- vertically opposite angles, angles on a straight line and angles at a point
- angles formed by two parallel lines and a transversal: corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles
- properties of triangles, special quadrilaterals and regular polygons (pentagon, hexagon, octagon and decagon), including symmetry properties
- classifying special quadrilaterals on the basis of their properties
- angle sum of interior and exterior angles of any convex polygon
- properties of perpendicular bisectors of line segments and angle bisectors
- construction of simple geometrical figures from given data (including perpendicular bisectors and angle bisectors) using compasses, ruler, set squares and protractors, where appropriate

#### G2. CONGRUENCE & SIMILARITY

- congruent figures and similar figures
- properties of similar triangles and polygons:
- corresponding angles are equal
- corresponding sides are proportionaL
- enlargement and reduction of a plane figure
- scale drawings
- determining whether two triangles are
- congruent
- similar
- ratio of areas of similar plane figures
- ratio of volumes of similar solids
- solving simple problems involving similarity and congruence

#### G3. PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES

- symmetry properties of circles:
- equal chords are equidistant from the centre
- the perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre
- tangents from an external point are equal in length
- the line joining an external point to the centre of the circle bisects the angle between the tangents
- angle properties of circles:
- angle in a semicircle is a right angle
- angle between tangent and radius of a circle is a right angle
- angle at the centre is twice the angle at the circumference
- angles in the same segment are equal
- angles in opposite segments are supplementary

#### G4. PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM & TRIGONOMETRY

- use of Pythagoras’ theorem
- determining whether a triangle is right-angled given the lengths of three sides
- use of trigonometric ratios (sine, cosine and tangent) of acute angles to calculate unknown sides and angles in right-angled triangles
- extending sine and cosine to obtuse angles
- use of the formula \( \frac{1}{2} \)ab sin C for the area of a triangle
- use of sine rule and cosine rule for any triangle
- problems in two and three dimensions including those involving angles of
elevation and depression and bearings

#### G5. MENSURATION

- area of parallelogram and trapezium
- problems involving perimeter and area of composite plane figures
- volume and surface area of cube, cuboid, prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone and sphere
- conversion between cm
^{2}and m^{2}, and between cm^{3}and m^{3} - problems involving volume and surface area of composite solids
- arc length, sector area and area of a segment of a circle
- use of radian measure of angle (including conversion between radians and degrees)

#### G6. COORDINATE GEOMETRY

- finding the gradient of a straight line given the coordinates of two points on it
- finding the length of a line segment given the coordinates of its end points
- interpreting and finding the equation of a straight line graph in the form y = mx + c
- geometric problems involving the use of coordinates

#### G7. VECTORS IN 2 DIMENSIONS

- use of notations:\( \binom {x} {y} , \vec{AB} \),
**a**, \( \left| \begin{matrix} \vec{AB} \end{matrix} \right| \) and \( \left| \begin{matrix}**b**\end{matrix} \right| \) - representing a vector as a directed line segment
- translation by a vector
- position vectors
- magnitude of a vector \( \binom {x} {y} \) as \( \sqrt{x^2+y^2} \)
- use of sum and difference of two vectors to express given vectors in terms of two coplanar vectors
- multiplication of a vector by a scalar
- geometric problems involving the use of vectors

#### G8. PROBLEMS IN REAL-WORLD CONTEXTS

- solving problems in real-world contexts (including floor plans, surveying, navigation, etc.) using geometry
- interpreting the solution in the context of the problem

#### N1. NUMBERS & THEIR OPERATIONS

- primes and prime factorisation
- finding highest common factor (HCF) and lowest common multiple (LCM), squares, cubes, square roots and cube roots by prime factorisation
- negative numbers, integers, rational numbers, real numbers, and their four operations
- calculations with calculator • representation and ordering of numbers on the number line
- use of the symbols <, >, ⩽, ⩾
- approximation and estimation (including rounding off numbers to a required number of decimal places or significant figures and estimating the results of computation)
- use of standard form A × 10
^{n}, where n is an integer, and 1 ⩽ A < 10 - positive, negative, zero and fractional indices
- laws of indices

#### N2. RATIO & PROPORTION

- ratios involving rational numbers
- writing a ratio in its simplest form
- map scales (distance and area)
- direct and inverse proportion

#### N3. PERCENTAGE

- expressing one quantity as a percentage of another
- comparing two quantities by percentage
- percentages greater than 100%
- increasing/decreasing a quantity by a given percentage
- reverse percentages

#### N4. RATE & SPEED

- average rate and average speed
- conversion of units (e.g. km/h to m/s)

#### N5. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS & FORMULAE

- using letters to represent numberS
- interpreting notations:
- ab as a × b
- \( \frac{a}{b} \) as a ÷ b or a × \( \frac{1}{b} \)
- a
^{2}as a × a, a^{3}as a × a × a, a^{2}b as a × a × b, ... - 3y as y + y + y or 3 × y
- 3(x + y) as 3 × (x + y)
- \( \frac{3+y}{5} \) as (3 + y) ÷ 5 or \( \frac{1}{5} \) × (3 + y)
- evaluation of algebraic expressions and formulae
- translation of simple real-world situations into algebraic expressions
- recognising and representing patterns/relationships by finding an algebraic expression for the nth term
- addition and subtraction of linear expressions
- simplification of linear expressions such as:
- −2(3x − 5) + 4x
- \( \frac{2x}{3}- \frac{3(x-5)}{2} \)
- use brackets and extract common factors
- factorisation of linear expressions of the form ax + bx + kay + kby
- expansion of the product of algebraic expressions
- changing the subject of a formula
- finding the value of an unknown quantity in a given formula
- use of:
- (a + b)
^{2}= a^{2}+ 2ab + b^{2} - (a − b)
^{2}= a^{2}− 2ab + b^{2} - a
^{2}− b^{2}= (a + b)(a − b) - factorisation of quadratic expressions ax
^{2}+ bx + c - multiplication and division of simple algebraic fractions such as:
- \( ( \frac{3a}{4b^2})( \frac{5ab}{3}) \)
- \( \frac{3a}{4} \div \frac{9a^2}{10} \)
- addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions with linear or quadratic denominator such as:
- \( \frac{1}{x-2} + \frac{2}{x-3} \)
- \( \frac{1}{x^2-9} + \frac{2}{x-3} \)
- \( \frac{1}{x-3} + \frac{2}{(x-3)^2} \)

#### N6. FUNCTIONS & GRAPHS

- Cartesian coordinates in two dimensions
- graph of a set of ordered pairs as a representation of a relationship between two variables
- linear functions (y = ax + b) and quadratic functions (y = ax
^{2}+ bx + c) - graphs of linear functions
- the gradient of a linear graph as the ratio of the vertical change to the horizontal change (positive and negative gradients)
- graphs of quadratic functions and their properties:
- positive or negative coefficient of x
^{2} - maximum and minimum points
- symmetry
- sketching the graphs of quadratic functions given in the form:
- y = – (x − p)
^{2}+ q - y = − (x − p)
^{2}+ q - y = – (x − a)(x − b)
- y = − (x − a)(x − b)
- graphs of power functions of the form y = ax
^{n}, where n = −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, and simple sums of not more than three of these - graphs of exponential functions y = ka
^{x}, where a is a positive integer - estimation of the gradient of a curve by drawing a tangent

#### N7. EQUATIONS & INEQUALITIES

- solving linear equations in one variable
- solving simple fractional equations that can be reduced to linear equations
such as:
- \( \frac{x}{3} + \frac{x-2}{4} =3 \)
- \(\frac{3}{x-2} =6 \)
- solving simultaneous linear equations in two variables by
- substitution and elimination methods
- graphical method
- solving quadratic equations in one unknown by
- factorisation
- use of formula
- completing the square for y = x
^{2}+ px + q - graphical methods
- solving fractional equations that can be reduced to quadratic equations such as:
- \( \frac{6}{x+4} \)=x+3
- \( \frac{1}{x-2}+ \frac{2}{x-3}=5 \)
- formulating equations to solve problems
- solving linear inequalities in one variable, and representing the solution on
the number line

#### N8. SET LANGUAGE & NOTATION

- use of set language and the following notation:
- Union of A and B A ∪ B
- Intersection of A and B A ∩ B
- ‘... is an element of ...’ ∈
- ‘... is not an element of ...’ ∉
- Complement of set A A′
- The empty set ∅
- Universal set \( \xi \)
- A is a (proper) subset of B A ⊂ B
- A is not a (proper) subset of B A ⊄ B
- union and intersection of two sets
- Venn diagrams

#### N9. MATRICES

- display of information in the form of a matrix of any order
- interpreting the data in a given matrix
- product of a scalar quantity and a matrix
- problems involving the calculation of the sum and product (where appropriate) of two matrices

#### N10. PROBLEMS IN REAL-WORLD CONTEXTS

- solving problems based on real-world contexts:
- in everyday life (including travel plans, transport schedules, sports and games, recipes, etc.)
- involving personal and household finance (including simple and compound interest, taxation, instalments, utilities bills, money exchange, etc.)
- interpreting and analysing data from tables and graphs, including distance– time and speed–time graphS
- interpreting the solution in the context of the problem

#### S1. DATA ANALYSIS

- analysis and interpretation of:
- tables
- bar graphs
- pictograms
- line graphs
- pie charts
- dot diagrams
- histograms with equal class intervals
- stem-and-leaf diagrams
- cumulative frequency diagrams
- box-and-whisker plots
- purposes and uses, advantages and disadvantages of the different forms of statistical representations
- explaining why a given statistical diagram leads to misinterpretation of data
- mean, mode and median as measures of central tendency for a set of data
- purposes and use of mean, mode and median
- calculation of the mean for grouped data
- quartiles and percentiles
- range, interquartile range and standard deviation as measures of spread for a set of data
- calculation of the standard deviation for a set of data (grouped and ungrouped)
- using the mean and standard deviation to compare two sets of data

#### S2. PROBABILITY

- probability as a measure of chance
- probability of single events (including listing all the possible outcomes in a simple chance situation to calculate the probability)
- probability of simple combined events (including using possibility diagrams and tree diagrams, where appropriate)
- addition and multiplication of probabilities (mutually exclusive events and independent events)

#### A1. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

- Finding the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function using the method of completing the square
- Conditions for y = ax
^{2}+ bx + c to be always positive (or always negative) - Using quadratic functions as models

#### A2. EQUATIONS & INEQUALITIES

- Conditions for a quadratic equation to have:

(i) two real roots

(ii) two equal roots

(iii) no real roots

and related conditions for a given line to:

(i) intersect a given curve

(ii) be a tangent to a given curve

(iii) not intersect a given curve - Solving simultaneous equations in two variables by substitution, with one of the equations being a linear equation
- Solving quadratic inequalities, and representing the solution on the number line

#### A3. SURDS

- Four operations on surds, including rationalising the denominator
- Solving equations involving surds

#### A4. POLYNOMIALS & PARTIAL FRACTIONS

- Multiplication and division of polynomials
- Use of remainder and factor theorems, including factorising polynomials and solving cubic equations
- Use of:

- a^{3}+ b^{3}= (a + b)(a^{2}– ab + b^{2})

- a^{3}– b^{3 }= (a – b)(a^{2}+ ab + b^{2}) - Partial fractions with cases where the denominator is no more
complicated than:

- (ax + b) (cx + d)

- (ax + b) (cx + d)^{2}

- (ax + b) (x^{2}+ c^{2})

#### A5. BINOMIAL EXPANSIONS

- Use of the Binomial Theorem for positive integer n
- Use of the notations n! and \( \binom {n} {r} \)
- Use of the general term \( \binom {n} {r} \)a
^{n-r}b^{r}, 0 ⩽ r ⩽ n

(knowledge of the greatest term and properties of the coefficients is not required)

#### A6. EXPONENTIAL & LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS

- Exponential and logarithmic functions a
^{x}, e^{x}, log_{a}x, In x and their graphs, including

- laws of logarithms

- equivalence of y = a^{x}and log_{a}x = y

- change of base of logarithms - Simplifying expressions and solving simple equations involving exponential and logarithmic functions
- Using exponential and logarithmic functions as models

#### C1. DIFFERENTIATION

- Derivative of f(x) as the gradient of the tangent to the graph of y = f(x) at a point
- Derivative as rate of change
- Use of standard notations

f'(x), f''(x), \( \frac{dy}{dx} \), \( \frac{d^2y}{dx^2} [= \frac{d}{dx} ( \frac{dy}{dx})] \) - Derivatives of x
^{n}, for any rational n, sin x, cos x, tan x, e^{x}, and In x together with constant multiples, sums and differences - Derivatives of products and quotients of functions
- Use of Chain Rule
- Increasing and decreasing functions
- Stationary points (maximum and minimum turning points and stationary points of inflexion)
- Use of second derivative test to discriminate between maxima and minima
- Apply differentiation to gradients, tangents and normals, connected rates of change and maxima and minima problems

#### C2. INTEGRATION

- Integration as the reverse of differentiation
- Integration of x
^{n}for any rational n, sin x, cos x, sec^{2}x and e^{x}, together with constant multiples, sums and differences - Integration of (ax + b)
^{n}for any rational n, sin (ax + b), cos (ax + b) and e^{(ax + b)} - Definite integral as area under a curve
- Evaluation of definite integrals
- Finding the area of a region bounded by a curve and line(s) (excluding area of region between 2 curves)
- Finding areas of regions below the x-axis
- Application of differentiation and integration to problems involving displacement, velocity and acceleration of a particle moving in a straight line

#### G1. TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS, IDENTITIES & EQUATIONS

- Six trigonometric functions for angles of any magnitude (in degrees or radians)
- Principal values of sin
^{–1}x, cos^{–1}x, tan^{–1}x - Exact values of the trigonometric functions for special angles (30°, 45°, 60°) or (\( \frac{ \pi }{6} , \frac{ \pi }{4} , \frac{ \pi }{3} \))
- Amplitude, periodicity and symmetries related to sine and cosine functions
- Graphs of y = a sin (bx) + c, y = a sin (\frac{x}{b}) + c, y = a cos (bx) + c, y = a cos (\( \frac{x}{b} \) + c and y = a tan (bx), where a is real, b is a positive integer and c is an integer.
- Use of:

- \( \frac{sinA}{cosA} = tanA \), \( \frac{cosA}{sinA} = cotA \), sin^{2}A + cos^{2}A = 1, sec^{2}A = 1 + tan^{2}A, cosec^{2}A = 1 + cot^{2}A

- the expansions of sin(A \( \pm \) B) , cos(A \( \pm \) B) and tan(A \( \pm \) B)

- the formulae for sin2A , cos2A and tan2A

- the expression of*acos*+*\( \theta \)**bsin*in the form*\( \theta \)**Rcos(\( \theta \) \( \pm \) \( \alpha \))*or*Rsin(**\( \theta \)*\( \pm \) \( \alpha \)) - Simplification of trigonometric expressions
- Solution of simple trigonometric equations in a given interval (excluding general solution)
- Proofs of simple trigonometric identities
- Using trigonometric functions as models

#### G2. COORDINATE GEOMETRY IN 2 DIMENSIONS

- Condition for two lines to be parallel or perpendicular
- Midpoint of line segment
- Area of rectilinear figure
- Coordinate geometry of circles in the form:

– (x-a)^{2}+ (y-b)^{2}= r^{2}

– x^{2}+ y^{2}+2gx + 2fy + c = 0

(excluding problems involving two circles) - Transformation of given relationships, including y = ax
^{n}and y = kb^{x}, to linear form to determine the unknown constants from a straight line graph

#### G3. PROOFS IN PLANE GEOMETRY

- Use of:

- properties of parallel lines cut by a transversal, perpendicular and angle bisectors, triangles, special quadrilaterals and circles ∗ • 1

- congruent and similar triangles ∗

- midpoint theorem

- tangent-chord theorem (alternate segment theorem)

#### 1. PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, UNITS & MEASUREMENTS

**Content**

- Physical quantities
- SI units
- Prefixes
- Scalars and vectors
- Measurement of length and time

**Learning Outcomes **

Candidates should be able to:

- show understanding that all physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude and a unit
- recall the following base quantities and their units: mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A), temperature (K), amount of substance (mol)
- use the following prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal sub-multiples and multiples of the SI units: nano (n), micro (µ), milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M), giga (G)
- show an understanding of the orders of magnitude of the sizes of common objects ranging from a typical atom to the Earth
- state what is meant by scalar and vector quantities and give common examples of each
- add two vectors to determine a resultant by a graphical method
- describe how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy by means of tapes, rules, micrometers and calipers, using a vernier scale as necessary
- describe how to measure a short interval of time including the period of a simple pendulum with appropriate accuracy using stopwatches or appropriate instruments

#### 2. KINEMATICS

**Content**

- Speed, velocity and acceleration
- Graphical analysis of motion
- Free-fall
- Effect of air resistance

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- state what is meant by speed and velocity
- calculate average speed using distance travelled / time taken
- state what is meant by uniform acceleration and calculate the value of an acceleration using change in velocity / time taken
- interpret given examples of non-uniform acceleration
- plot and interpret a displacement-time graph and a velocity-time graph
- deduce from the shape of a displacement-time graph when a body is:
- (i) at rest
- (ii) moving with uniform velocity
- (iii) moving with non-uniform velocity
- deduce from the shape of a velocity-time graph when a body is:
- (i) at rest
- (ii) moving with uniform velocity
- (iii) moving with uniform acceleration
- (iv) moving with non-uniform acceleration
- calculate the area under a velocity-time graph to determine the displacement travelled for motion with uniform velocity or uniform acceleration
- state that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the Earth is constant and is approximately 10 m/s
^{2} - describe the motion of bodies with constant weight falling with or without air resistance, including reference to terminal velocity

#### 3. DYNAMICS

**Content**

- Balanced and unbalanced forces
- Free-body diagram
- Friction

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- apply Newton's Laws to:
- (i) describe the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on a body
- (ii) describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body
- (iii) identify action-reaction pairs acting on two interacting bodies

(stating of Newton's Laws is not required) - identify forces acting on an object and draw free-body diagram(s) representing the forces acting on the object (for cases involving forces acting in at most 2 dimensions)
- solve problems for a static point mass under the action of 3 forces for 2-dimensional cases (a graphical method would suffice)
- recall and apply the relationship resultant force = mass × acceleration to new situations or to solve related problems
- explain the effects of friction on the motion of a body

#### 4. MASS, WEIGHT & DENSITY

**Content**

- Mass and weight
- Gravitational field and field strength
- Density

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- state that mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body
- state that mass of a body resists a change in the state of rest or motion of the body (inertia)
- state that a gravitational field is a region in which a mass experiences a force due to gravitational attraction
- define gravitational field strength, g, as gravitational force per unit mass
- recall and apply the relationship weight = mass × gravitational field strength to new situations or to solve related problems
- distinguish between mass and weight
- recall and apply the relationship density = mass / volume to new situations or to solve related problems

#### 5. TURNING EFFECT OF FORCES

**Content**

- Moments
- Centre of gravity
- Stability

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- describe the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and relate this to everyday examples
- recall and apply the relationship moment of a force (or torque) = force × perpendicular distance from the pivot to new situations or to solve related problems
- state the principle of moments for a body in equilibrium
- apply the principle of moments to new situations or to solve related problems
- show understanding that the weight of a body may be taken as acting at a single point known as its centre of gravity
- describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of gravity on the stability of objects

#### 6. PRESSURE

**Content**

- Pressure
- Pressure differences
- Pressure measurement

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- define the term pressure in terms of force and area
- recall and apply the relationship pressure = force /area to new situations or to solve related problems
- describe and explain the transmission of pressure in hydraulic systems with particular reference to the hydraulic press
- recall and apply the relationship pressure due to a liquid column = height of column × density of the liquid × gravitational field strength to new situations or to solve related problems
- describe how the height of a liquid column may be used to measure the atmospheric pressure
- describe the use of a manometer in the measurement of pressure difference

#### 7. ENERGY, WORK & POWER

Content

- Energy conversion and conservation
- Work
- Power

Candidates should be able to:

- show understanding that kinetic energy, potential energy (chemical, gravitational, elastic), light energy, thermal energy, electrical energy and nuclear energy are examples of different forms of energy
- state the principle of the conservation of energy and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- calculate the efficiency of an energy conversion using the formula efficiency = energy converted to useful output/total energy input
- state that kinetic energy E
_{k}= ½ mv^{2}and gravitational potential energy E_{p}= mgh (for potential energy changes near the Earth’s surface) - apply the relationships for kinetic energy and potential energy to new situations or to solve related problems
- recall and apply the relationship work done = force × distance moved in the direction of the force to new situations or to solve related problems
- recall and apply the relationship power = work done /time taken to new situations or to solve related problems

#### 8. KINETIC MODEL OF MATTER

**Content**

- States of matter
- Brownian motion
- Kinetic model

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- compare the properties of solids, liquids and gases
- describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases, relating their properties to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules
- infer from a Brownian motion experiment the evidence for the movement of molecules
- describe the relationship between the motion of molecules and temperature
- explain the pressure of a gas in terms of the motion of its molecules
- recall and explain the following relationships using the kinetic model (stating of the corresponding gas laws is not required):
- (i) a change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume is caused by a change in temperature of the gas
- (ii) a change in volume occupied by a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is caused by a change in temperature of the gas
- (iii) a change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is caused by a change in volume of the gas
- use the relationships in (f) in related situations and to solve problems (a qualitative treatment would suffice)

#### 9. TRANSFER OF THERMAL ENERGY

Content

- Conduction
- Convection
- Radiation

Candidates should be able to:

- show understanding that thermal energy is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature
- describe, in molecular terms, how energy transfer occurs in solids
- describe, in terms of density changes, convection in fluids
- explain that energy transfer of a body by radiation does not require a material medium and that the rate of energy transfer is affected by:
- (i) colour and texture of the surface
- (ii) surface temperature
- (iii) surface area
- apply the concept of thermal energy transfer to everyday applications

#### 10. TEMPERATURE

**Content**

- Principles of thermometry

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- explain how a physical property which varies with temperature, such as volume of liquid column, resistance of metal wire and electromotive force (e.m.f.) produced by junctions formed with wires of two different metals, may be used to define temperature scales
- describe the process of calibration of a liquid-in-glass thermometer, including the need for fixed points such as the ice point and steam point

#### 11. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

**Content**

- Internal energy
- Specific heat capacity
- Melting, boiling and evaporation
- Specific latent heat

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- describe a rise in temperature of a body in terms of an increase in its internal energy (random thermal energy)
- define the terms heat capacity and specific heat capacity
- recall and apply the relationship thermal energy = mass × specific heat capacity × change in temperature to new situations or to solve related problems
- describe melting/solidification and boiling/condensation as processes of energy transfer without a change in temperature
- explain the difference between boiling and evaporation
- define the terms latent heat and specific latent heat
- recall and apply the relationship thermal energy = mass × specific latent heat to new situations or to solve related problems
- explain latent heat in terms of molecular behaviour
- sketch and interpret a cooling curve

#### 12. GENERAL WAVE PROPERTIES

**Content**

- Describing wave motion
- Wave terms
- Longitudinal and transverse waves

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibrations in ropes and springs and by waves in a ripple tank
- show understanding that waves transfer energy without transferring matter
- define speed, frequency, wavelength, period and amplitude
- state what is meant by the term wavefront
- recall and apply the relationship velocity = frequency × wavelength to new situations or to solve related problems
- compare transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples of each

#### 13. LIGHT

Content

- Reflection of light
- Refraction of light
- Thin lenses

Candidates should be able to:

- recall and use the terms for reflection, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of reflection
- state that, for reflection, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection and use this principle in constructions, measurements and calculations
- recall and use the terms for refraction, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction
- recall and apply the relationship sin i / sin r = constant to new situations or to solve related problems
- define refractive index of a medium in terms of the ratio of speed of light in vacuum and in the medium
- explain the terms critical angle and total internal reflection
- identify the main ideas in total internal reflection and apply them to the use of optical fibres in telecommunication and state the advantages of their use
- describe the action of a thin lens (both converging and diverging) on a beam of light
- define the term focal length for a converging lens
- draw ray diagrams to illustrate the formation of real and virtual images of an object by a thin converging lens

#### 14. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Content

- Properties of electromagnetic waves
- Applications of electromagnetic waves
- Effects of electromagnetic waves on cells and tissue

Candidates should be able to:

- state that all electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that travel with the same speed in vacuum and state the magnitude of this speed
- describe the main components of the electromagnetic spectrum
- state examples of the use of the following components:
- (i) radio waves (e.g. radio and television communication)
- (ii) microwaves (e.g. microwave oven and satellite television)
- (iii) infra-red (e.g. infra-red remote controllers and intruder alarms)
- (iv) light (e.g. optical fibres for medical uses and telecommunications)
- (v) ultra-violet (e.g. sunbeds and sterilisation)
- (vi) X-rays (e.g. radiological and engineering applications)
- (vii) gamma rays (e.g. medical treatment)
- describe the effects of absorbing electromagnetic waves, e.g. heating, ionisation and damage to living cells and tissue

#### 15. SOUND

Content

- Sound waves
- Speed of sound
- Echo
- Ultrasound

Candidates should be able to:

- describe the production of sound by vibrating sources
- describe the longitudinal nature of sound waves in terms of the processes of compression and rarefaction
- explain that a medium is required in order to transmit sound waves and that the speed of sound differs in air, liquids and solids
- describe a direct method for the determination of the speed of sound in air and make the necessary calculation
- relate loudness of a sound wave to its amplitude and pitch to its frequency
- describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo, and how this may be used for measuring distances
- define ultrasound and describe one use of ultrasound, e.g. quality control and pre-natal scanning

#### 16. STATIC ELECTRICITY

**Content**

- Laws of electrostatics
- Principles of electrostatics
- Electric field
- Applications of electrostatics

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- state that there are positive and negative charges and that charge is measured in coulombs
- state that unlike charges attract and like charges repel
- describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force
- draw the electric field of an isolated point charge and recall that the direction of the field lines gives the direction of the force acting on a positive test charge
- draw the electric field pattern between two isolated point charges
- show understanding that electrostatic charging by rubbing involves a transfer of electrons
- describe experiments to show electrostatic charging by induction
- describe examples where electrostatic charging may be a potential hazard
- describe the use of electrostatic charging in a photocopier, and apply the use of electrostatic charging to new situations

#### 17. CURRENT OF ELECTRICITY

Content

- Conventional current and electron flow
- Electromotive force
- Potential difference
- Resistance

Candidates should be able to:

- state that current is a rate of flow of charge and that it is measured in amperes
- distinguish between conventional current and electron flow
- recall and apply the relationship charge = current × time to new situations or to solve related problems
- define electromotive force (e.m.f.) as the work done by a source in driving unit charge around a complete circuit
- calculate the total e.m.f. where several sources are arranged in series
- state that the e.m.f. of a source and the potential difference (p.d.) across a circuit component are measured in volts
- define the p.d. across a component in a circuit as the work done to drive unit charge through the component
- state the definition that resistance = p.d./ current
- apply the relationship R = V/ I to new situations or to solve related problems
- describe an experiment to determine the resistance of a metallic conductor using a voltmeter and an ammeter, and make the necessary calculations
- recall and apply the formulae for the effective resistance of a number of resistors in series and in parallel to new situations or to solve related problems
- recall and apply the relationship of the proportionality between resistance and the length and crosssectional area of a wire to new situations or to solve related problems
- state Ohm’s Law
- describe the effect of temperature increase on the resistance of a metallic conductor
- sketch and interpret the I /V characteristic graphs for a metallic conductor at constant temperature, for a filament lamp and for a semiconductor diode

#### 18. D.C. CIRCUITS

Content

- Current and potential difference in circuits
- Series and parallel circuits
- Potential divider circuit
- Thermistor and light-dependent resistor

Candidates should be able to:

- draw circuit diagrams with power sources (cell, battery, d.c. supply or a.c. supply), switches, lamps, resistors (fixed and variable), variable potential divider (potentiometer), fuses, ammeters and voltmeters, bells, light-dependent resistors, thermistors and light-emitting diodes
- state that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- state that the sum of the potential differences in a series circuit is equal to the potential difference across the whole circuit and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- state that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- state that the potential difference across the separate branches of a parallel circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems
- recall and apply the relevant relationships, including R = V/ I and those for current, potential differences and resistors in series and in parallel circuits, in calculations involving a whole circuit
- describe the action of a variable potential divider (potentiometer)
- describe the action of thermistors and light-dependent resistors and explain their use as input transducers in potential dividers
- solve simple circuit problems involving thermistors and light-dependent resistors

#### 19. PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY

Content

- Electric power and energy
- Dangers of electricity
- Safe use of electricity in the home

Candidates should be able to:

- describe the use of the heating effect of electricity in appliances such as electric kettles, ovens and heaters
- recall and apply the relationships P = VI and E = VI t to new situations or to solve related problems
- calculate the cost of using electrical appliances where the energy unit is the kW h
- compare the use of non-renewable and renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric generation to generate electricity in terms of energy conversion efficiency, cost per kW h produced and environmental impact
- state the hazards of using electricity in the following situations:
- (i) damaged insulation
- (ii) overheating of cables
- (iii) damp conditions
- explain the use of fuses and circuit breakers in electrical circuits and of fuse ratings
- explain the need for earthing metal cases and for double insulation
- state the meaning of the terms live, neutral and earth
- (i) describe the wiring in a mains plug (j) explain why switches, fuses, and circuit breakers are wired into the live conductor

#### 20. MAGNETISM

**Content**

- Laws of magnetism
- Magnetic properties of matter
- Magnetic field

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- state the properties of magnets
- describe induced magnetism
- describe electrical methods of magnetisation and demagnetisation
- draw the magnetic field pattern around a bar magnet and between the poles of two bar magnets
- describe the plotting of magnetic field lines with a compass
- distinguish between the properties and uses of temporary magnets (e.g. iron) and permanent magnets (e.g. steel)

#### 1. EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY

**Content**

- Experimental design
- Methods of purification and analysis
- Identification of ions and gases

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- Experimental design
- (a) name appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and volume, including burettes, pipettes, measuring cylinders and gas syringes
- (b) suggest suitable apparatus, given relevant information, for a variety of simple experiments, including collection of gases and measurement of rates of reaction.
- Methods of purification and analysis
- (a) describe methods of separation and purification for the components of mixtures, to include:
- (i) use of a suitable solvent, filtration and crystallisation or evaporation
- (ii) sublimation
- (iii) distillation and fractional distillation (see also 11.1(b))
- (iv) use of a separating funnel
- (v) paper chromatography
- (b) suggest suitable separation and purification methods, given information about the substances involved in the following types of mixtures:
- (i) solid-solid
- (ii) solid-liquid
- (iii) liquid-liquid (miscible and immiscible)
- (c) interpret paper chromatograms including comparison with ‘known’ samples and the use of R
_{f}values - (d) explain the need to use locating agents in the chromatography of colourless compounds (knowledge of specific locating agents is not required)
- (e) deduce from given melting point and boiling point data the identities of substances and their purity
- (f) explain that the measurement of purity in substances used in everyday life, e.g. foodstuffs and drugs, is important.
- Identification of ions and gases
- (a) describe the use of aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia to identify the following aqueous cations: aluminium, ammonium, calcium, copper(II), iron(II), iron(III), lead(II) and zinc (formulae of complex ions are not required)
- (b) describe tests to identify the following anions: carbonate (by the addition of dilute acid and subsequent use of limewater); chloride (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous silver nitrate); iodide (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous silver nitrate); nitrate (by reduction with aluminium in aqueous sodium hydroxide to ammonia and subsequent use of litmus paper) and sulfate (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous barium nitrate)
- (c) describe tests to identify the following gases: ammonia (using damp red litmus paper); carbon dioxide (using limewater); chlorine (using damp litmus paper); hydrogen (using a burning splint); oxygen (using a glowing splint) and sulfur dioxide (using acidified potassium manganate(VII)).

#### 2. THE PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER

**Content**

- Kinetic particle theory
- Atomic structure
- Structure and properties of materials
- Ionic bonding
- Covalent bonding
- Metallic bonding

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- Kinetic particle theory
- (a) describe the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter and explain their interconversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory and of the energy changes involved
- (b) describe and explain evidence for the movement of particles in liquids and gases (the treatment of Brownian motion is not required)
- (c) explain everyday effects of diffusion in terms of particles, e.g. the spread of perfumes and cooking aromas; tea and coffee grains in water
- (d) state qualitatively the effect of molecular mass on the rate of diffusion and explain the dependence of rate of diffusion on temperature.
- Atomic structure
- (a) state the relative charges and approximate relative masses of a proton, a neutron and an electron
- (b) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an atom as containing protons and neutrons (nucleons) in the nucleus and electrons arranged in shells (energy levels) (knowledge of s, p, d and f classification is not required; a copy of the Periodic Table will be available in Papers 1 and 2)
- (c) define proton (atomic) number and nucleon (mass) number
- (d) interpret and use symbols such as C12 6
- (e) define the term isotopes
- (f) deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions given proton and nucleon numbers.
- Structure and properties of materials
- (a) describe the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures
- (b) compare the structure of simple molecular substances, e.g. methane; iodine, with those of giant molecular substances, e.g. poly(ethene); sand (silicon dioxide); diamond; graphite in order to deduce their properties
- (c) compare the bonding and structures of diamond and graphite in order to deduce their properties such as electrical conductivity, lubricating or cutting action (candidates will not be required to draw the structures)
- (d) deduce the physical and chemical properties of substances from their structures and bonding and vice versa.
- Ionic bonding
- (a) describe the formation of ions by electron loss/gain in order to obtain the electronic configuration of a noble gas
- (b) describe the formation of ionic bonds between metals and non-metals, e.g. NaCl; MgCl
_{2} - (c) state that ionic materials contain a giant lattice in which the ions are held by electrostatic attraction, e.g. NaCl (candidates will not be required to draw diagrams of ionic lattices)
- (d) deduce the formulae of other ionic compounds from diagrams of their lattice structures, limited to binary compounds
- (e) relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of ionic compounds to their lattice structure.
- Covalent bonding
- (a) describe the formation of a covalent bond by the sharing of a pair of electrons in order to gain the electronic configuration of a noble gas
- (b) describe, using ‘dot-and-cross’ diagrams, the formation of covalent bonds between non-metallic
elements, e.g. H
_{2}; O_{2}; H_{2}O; CH_{4}; CO_{2} - (c) deduce the arrangement of electrons in other covalent molecules
- (d) relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of covalent substances to their structure and bonding. \
- Metallic bonding
- (a) describe metals as a lattice of positive ions in a ‘sea of electrons’
- (b) relate the electrical conductivity of metals to the mobility of the electrons in the structure (see also 9.1(a)).

#### 3. FORMULAE, STOICHIOMETRY & THE MOLE CONCEPT

**Learning Outcomes **

Candidates should be able to:

- (a) state the symbols of the elements and formulae of the compounds mentioned in the syllabus
- (b) deduce the formulae of simple compounds from the relative numbers of atoms present and vice versa
- (c) deduce the formulae of ionic compounds from the charges on the ions present and vice versa
- (d) interpret chemical equations with state symbols
- (e) construct chemical equations, with state symbols, including ionic equations
- (f) define relative atomic mass, A
_{r} - (g) define relative molecular mass, M
_{r}, and calculate relative molecular mass (and relative formula mass) as the sum of relative atomic masses - (h) calculate the percentage mass of an element in a compound when given appropriate information
- (i) calculate empirical and molecular formulae from relevant data
- (j) calculate stoichiometric reacting masses and volumes of gases (one mole of gas occupies 24dm
^{3}at room temperature and pressure); calculations involving the idea of limiting reactants may be set

(Knowledge of the gas laws and the calculations of gaseous volumes at different temperatures and pressures are**not**required.) - (k) apply the concept of solution concentration (in mol /dm
^{3}or g /dm^{3}) to process the results of volumetric experiments and to solve simple problems

(Appropriate guidance will be provided where unfamiliar reactions are involved.) - (l) calculate % yield and % purity.

#### 4. ELECTROLYSIS

**Learning Outcomes **

Candidates should be able to:

- describe electrolysis as the conduction of electricity by an ionic compound (an electrolyte), when molten or dissolved in water, leading to the decomposition of the electrolyte
- describe electrolysis as evidence for the existence of ions which are held in a lattice when solid but which are free to move when molten or in solution
- describe, in terms of the mobility of ions present and the electrode products, the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride, using inert electrodes
- predict the likely products of the electrolysis of a molten binary compound
- apply the idea of selective discharge based on
- (i) cations: linked to the reactivity series (see also 9.2)
- (ii) anions: halides, hydroxides and sulfates (e.g. aqueous copper(II) sulfate and dilute sodium chloride solution (as essentially the electrolysis of water))
- (iii) concentration effects (as in the electrolysis of concentrated and dilute aqueous sodium chloride)

(In all cases above, inert electrodes are used.) - predict the likely products of the electrolysis of an aqueous electrolyte, given relevant information
- construct ionic equations for the reactions occurring at the electrodes during the electrolysis, given relevant information
- describe the electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) sulfate with copper electrodes as a means of purifying copper (no technical details are required)
- describe the electroplating of metals, e.g. copper plating, and state one use of electroplating
- describe the production of electrical energy from simple cells (i.e. two electrodes in an electrolyte) linked to the reactivity series (see also 9.2) and redox reactions (in terms of electron transfer).

#### 5. ENERGY FROM CHEMICALS

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- (a) describe the meaning of enthalpy change in terms of exothermic (∆H negative) and endothermic (∆H positive) reactions
- (b) represent energy changes by energy profile diagrams, including reaction enthalpy changes and activation energies (see also 6.1(c),6.1(d))
- (c) describe bond breaking as an endothermic process and bond making as an exothermic process
- (d) explain overall enthalpy changes in terms of the energy changes associated with the breaking and making of covalent bonds
- (e) describe hydrogen, derived from water or hydrocarbons, as a potential fuel, reacting with oxygen to generate electricity directly in a fuel cell (details of the construction and operation of a fuel cell are not required).

#### 6. CHEMICAL REACTIONS

**Content**

- Speed of reaction
- Redox

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- Speed of reaction
- (a) describe the effect of concentration, pressure, particle size and temperature on the speeds of reactions and explain these effects in terms of collisions between reacting particles
- (b) define the term catalyst and describe the effect of catalysts (including enzymes) on the speeds of reactions
- (c) explain how pathways with lower activation energies account for the increase in speeds of reactions (see also 5(b))
- (d) state that some compounds act as catalysts in a range of industrial processes and that enzymes are biological catalysts (see also 5(b), 6.1(c), 8.3(b) and 10(d))
- (e) suggest a suitable method for investigating the effect of a given variable on the speed of a reaction
- (f) interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with speed of reaction.
- Redox
- (a) define oxidation and reduction (redox) in terms of oxygen/hydrogen gain/loss
- (b) define redox in terms of electron transfer and changes in oxidation state
- (c) identify redox reactions in terms of oxygen/hydrogen gain/loss, electron gain/loss and changes in oxidation state
- (d) describe the use of aqueous potassium iodide and acidified potassium manganate(VII) in testing for oxidising and reducing agents from the resulting colour changes.

#### 7. ACIDS, BASES & SALTS

**Content**

- Acids and bases
- Salts
- Ammonia

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- Acids and bases
- (a) describe the meanings of the terms acid and alkali in terms of the ions they produce in aqueous solution and their effects on Universal Indicator
- (b) describe how to test hydrogen ion concentration and hence relative acidity using Universal Indicator and the pH scale
- (c) describe qualitatively the difference between strong and weak acids in terms of the extent of ionisation
- (d) describe the characteristic properties of acids as in reactions with metals, bases and carbonates
- (e) state the uses of sulfuric acid in the manufacture of detergents and fertilisers; and as a battery acid
- (f) describe the reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions to produce water,
H
^{+}+ OH^{–}→ H_{2}O, as neutralisation - (g) describe the importance of controlling the pH in soils and how excess acidity can be treated using calcium hydroxide
- (h) describe the characteristic properties of bases in reactions with acids and with ammonium salts
- (i) classify oxides as acidic, basic, amphoteric or neutral based on metallic/non-metallic character.
- Salts
- (a) describe the techniques used in the preparation, separation and purification of salts as examples of some of the techniques specified in Section 1.2(a) (methods for preparation should include precipitation and titration together with reactions of acids with metals, insoluble bases and insoluble carbonates)
- (b) describe the general rules of solubility for common salts to include nitrates, chlorides (including silver and lead), sulfates (including barium, calcium and lead), carbonates, hydroxides, salts of Group I cations and ammonium salts
- (c) suggest a method of preparing a given salt from suitable starting materials, given appropriate information.
- Ammonia
- (a) describe the use of nitrogen, from air, and hydrogen, from the cracking of crude oil, in the manufacture of ammonia
- (b) state that some chemical reactions are reversible, e.g. manufacture of ammonia
- (c) describe the essential conditions for the manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process
- (d) describe the displacement of ammonia from its salts.

#### 8. THE PERIODIC TABLE

**Content**

- Periodic trends
- Group properties
- Transition elements

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- Periodic trends
- (a) describe the Periodic Table as an arrangement of the elements in the order of increasing proton (atomic) number
- (b) describe how the position of an element in the Periodic Table is related to proton number and electronic structure
- (c) describe the relationship between group number and the ionic charge of an ion of an element
- (d) explain the similarities between the elements in the same group of the Periodic Table in terms of their electronic structure
- (e) describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character from left to right across a period of the Period Table
- (f) describe the relationship between group number, number of valency electrons and metallic/ non-metallic character
- (g) predict the properties of elements in Group I and Group VII using the Periodic Table.
- Group properties
- (a) describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I (the alkali metals) as a collection of relatively soft, low-density metals showing a trend in melting point and in their reaction with water
- (b) describe chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII (the halogens) as a collection of diatomic, nonmetals showing a trend in colour, state and their displacement reactions with solutions of other halide ions
- (c) describe the elements in Group 0 (the noble gases) as a collection of monatomic elements that are chemically unreactive and hence important in providing an inert atmosphere, e.g. argon and neon in light bulbs; helium in balloons; argon in the manufacture of steel
- (d) describe the lack of reactivity of the noble gases in terms of their electronic structures.
- Transition elements
- (a) describe typical transition elements as metals having high melting point, high density, variable oxidation state and forming coloured compounds
- (b) state that the elements and/or their compounds are often able to act as catalysts (see also 6.1(d)).

#### 9. METALS

**Content**

- Properties of metals
- Reactivity series
- Extraction of metals
- Recycling of metals
- Iron

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- Properties of metals
- (a) describe the general physical properties of metals as solids having high melting and boiling points, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity in terms of their structure (see also 2.6(b))
- (b) describe alloys as a mixture of a metal with another element, e.g. brass; stainless steel
- (c) identify representations of metals and alloys from diagrams of structures
- (d) explain why alloys have different physical properties to their constituent elements.
- Reactivity series
- (a) place in order of reactivity calcium, copper, (hydrogen), iron, lead, magnesium, potassium, silver, sodium and zinc by reference to
- (i) the reactions, if any, of the metals with water, steam and dilute hydrochloric acid,
- (ii) the reduction, if any, of their oxides by carbon and/or by hydrogen
- (b) describe the reactivity series as related to the tendency of a metal to form its positive ion, illustrated by its reaction with
- (i) the aqueous ions of the other listed metals
- (ii) the oxides of the other listed metals
- (c) deduce the order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results
- (d) describe the action of heat on the carbonates of the listed metals and relate thermal stability to the reactivity series.
- Extraction of metals
- (a) describe the ease of obtaining metals from their ores by relating the elements to their positions in the reactivity series.
- Recycling of metals
- (a) describe metal ores as a finite resource and hence the need to recycle metals, e.g. recycling of iron
- (b) discuss the social, economic and environmental issues of recycling metals.
- Iron
- (a) describe and explain the essential reactions in the extraction of iron using haematite, limestone and coke in the blast furnace
- (b) describe steels as alloys which are a mixture of iron with carbon or other metals and how controlled use of these additives changes the properties of the iron, e.g. high carbon steels are strong but brittle whereas low carbon steels are softer and more easily shaped
- (c) state the uses of mild steel, e.g. car bodies; machinery, and stainless steel, e.g. chemical plants; cutlery; surgical instruments
- (d) describe the essential conditions for the corrosion (rusting) of iron as the presence of oxygen and water; prevention of rusting can be achieved by placing a barrier around the metal, e.g. painting; greasing; plastic coating; galvanising
- (e) describe the sacrificial protection of iron by a more reactive metal in terms of the reactivity series where the more reactive metal corrodes preferentially, e.g. underwater pipes have a piece of magnesium attached to them.

#### 10. AIR

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to:

- describe the volume composition of gases present in dry air as being approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and the remainder being noble gases (with argon as the main constituent) and carbon dioxide
- name some common atmospheric pollutants, e.g. carbon monoxide; methane; nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2); ozone; sulfur dioxide; unburned hydrocarbons
- state the sources of these pollutants as
- (i) carbon monoxide from incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances
- (ii) nitrogen oxides from lightning activity and internal combustion engines
- (iii) sulfur dioxide from volcanoes and combustion of fossil fuels
- describe the reactions used in possible solutions to the problems arising from some of the pollutants named in (b)
- (i) the redox reactions in catalytic converters to remove combustion pollutants (see also 6.1(d))
- (ii) the use of calcium carbonate to reduce the effect of ‘acid rain’ and in flue gas desulfurisation
- discuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment
- (i) the poisonous nature of carbon monoxide
- (ii) the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in the formation of ‘acid rain’ and its effects on respiration and buildings
- discuss the importance of the ozone layer and the problems involved with the depletion of ozone by reaction with chlorine-containing compounds, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
- describe the carbon cycle in simple terms, to include
- (i) the processes of combustion, respiration and photosynthesis
- (ii) how the carbon cycle regulates the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
- state that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases and may contribute to global warming,
give the sources of these gases and discuss the possible consequences of an increase in global
warming.

#### 11. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

**Content**

- Fuels and crude oil
- Alkanes
- Alkenes
- Alcohols
- Carboxylic acids
- Macromolecules

**Learning Outcomes**

Candidates should be able to: 11.1 Fuels and crude oil

- (a) name natural gas, mainly methane, and petroleum as sources of energy
- (b) describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation (see also 1.2(a))
- (c) name the following fractions and state their uses
- (i) petrol (gasoline) as a fuel in cars
- (ii) naphtha as the feedstock and main source of hydrocarbons used for the production of a wide range of organic compounds in the petrochemical industry (see also 11.1(d))
- (iii) paraffin (kerosene) as a fuel for heating and cooking and for aircraft engines
- (iv) diesel as a fuel for diesel engines
- (v) lubricating oils as lubricants and as a source of polishes and waxes
- (vi) bitumen for making road surfaces
- (d) describe the issues relating to the competing uses of oil as an energy source and as a chemical feedstock (see also 11.1(c)(ii)).

- (a) describe a homologous series as a group of compounds with a general formula, similar chemical properties and showing a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in the size and mass of the molecules, e.g. melting and boiling points; viscosity; flammability
- (b) describe the alkanes as a homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C
_{n}H_{2n+2} - (c) draw the structures of branched and unbranched alkanes, C
_{1}to C_{4}, and name the unbranched alkanes methane to butane - (d) define isomerism and identify isomers
- (e) describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive except in terms of combustion and substitution by chlorine.

- (a) describe the alkenes as a homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C
_{n}H_{2n} - (b) draw the structures of branched and unbranched alkenes, C
_{2}to C_{4}, and name the unbranched alkenes ethene to butene - (c) describe the manufacture of alkenes and hydrogen by cracking hydrocarbons and recognise that cracking is essential to match the demand for fractions containing smaller molecules from the refinery process
- (d) describe the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons from their molecular structures and by using aqueous bromine
- (e) describe the properties of alkenes (exemplified by ethene) in terms of combustion, polymerisation and the addition reactions with bromine, steam and hydrogen
- (f) state the meaning of polyunsaturated when applied to food products
- (g) describe the manufacture of margarine by the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated vegetable oils to form a solid product.

- (a) describe the alcohols as a homologous series containing the –OH group
- (b) draw the structures of alcohols, C
_{1}to C_{4}, and name the unbranched alcohols methanol to butanol - (c) describe the properties of alcohols in terms of combustion and oxidation to carboxylic acids
- (d) describe the formation of ethanol by the catalysed addition of steam to ethene and by fermentation of glucose
- (e) state some uses of ethanol, e.g. as a solvent; as a fuel; as a constituent of alcoholic beverages.

- (a) describe the carboxylic acids as a homologous series containing the –CO
_{2}H group - (b) draw the structures of carboxylic acids, methanoic acid to butanoic acid, and name the unbranched acids, methanoic acid to butanoic acid
- (c) describe the carboxylic acids as weak acids, reacting with carbonates, bases and some metals
- (d) describe the formation of ethanoic acid by the oxidation of ethanol by atmospheric oxygen or acidified potassium manganate(VII)
- (e) describe the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol to form an ester, e.g. ethyl ethanoate
- (f) state some commercial uses of esters, e.g. perfumes; flavourings; solvents.

- (a) describe macromolecules as large molecules built up from small units, different macromolecules having different units and/or different linkages
- (b) describe the formation of poly(ethene) as an example of addition polymerisation of ethene as the monomer
- (c) state some uses of poly(ethene) as a typical plastic, e.g. plastic bags; clingfilm
- (d) deduce the structure of the polymer product from a given monomer and vice versa
- (e) describe nylon, a polyamide, and Terylene, a polyester, as condensation polymers, the partial structure of nylon being represented as and the partial structure of Terylene as (Details of manufacture and mechanisms of these polymerisations are not required.)
- (f) state some typical uses of man-made fibres such as nylon and Terylene, e.g. clothing; curtain materials; fishing line; parachutes; sleeping bags
- (g) describe the pollution problems caused by the disposal of non-biodegradable plastics.